Eesti riigiõigusteadlane Artur-Tõeleid Kliimann kirjutas 1931. aastal ajakirjas „Õigus” avaldatud artiklis Hääleõigus ja hääletamissund : interpretatsiooniküsimusi maksvast riigiõigusest: „Hääleõiguslik on iga kodanik, kes on saanud kakskümmend aastat vanaks, esiteks, ja, teiseks, kes ühtlasi on pidevalt elanud eesti riikkondsuses vähemalt ühe aasta. [—] Hääleõigus on oma iseloomult kõige pealt avalik õigus. Selline õigus omistatakse kodanikule mitte oma isiklikkude sihtide taotlemiseks, vaid üldsuse kasuks. On siis ka endastmõistetav, et tema kasutamist tohib korraldada üksnes üldsust juhtiv avalik võim, aga mitte kodanik ise. Hääleõigus kuulub niisuguste õiguste liiki, mille sisu ja piirid on täpselt määratud. Samuti on täpsalt määratud seesuguste õiguste kasutamisviisid ja –protseduur.”
Hääletamist kohalike omavalitsuste valimistel sätestavad Eesti Vabariigi põhiseadus § 156 ja Kohaliku omavalitsuse volikogu valimise seadus (KOVVS). KOVVS § 5 lg 1 kohaselt on hääletamisõigus Eesti kodanikul ja Euroopa Liidu (EL) kodanikul, kes on valimispäevaks saanud 16-aastaseks ja kelle püsiv elukoht, s.o elukoht, mille aadressiandmed on kantud rahvastikuregistrisse, asub vastavas vallas või linnas. Seega on isikul õigus hääletada selle KOVi volikogu valimistel, kus asub tema püsiv elukoht. KOVVS § 5 lg 2 annab õiguse hääletada ka välismaalasel, kes vastab käesoleva paragrahvi lõikes 1 nimetatud tingimustele ja kes, elab Eestis pikaajalise elaniku elamisloa või alalise elamisõiguse alusel. Riigikogu menetluses on seaduseelnõu (594 SE), mille eesmärk on tunnistada kehtetuks Eestis elavate välismaalaste (välja arvatud Euroopa Liidu kodanike) hääletamisõigus kohalikel valimistel.
Kas ja kuidas on teised Euroopa Liidu liikmesriigid välismaalaste hääleõiguse kehtestanud? Austrias, Bulgaarias, Horvaatias, Itaalias, Kreekas, Küprosel, Lätis, Maltal, Poolas, Prantsusmaal, Rumeenias, Saksamaal ja Tšehhis ei ole kolmandate riikide kodanikel valimisõigust. Siinkohal toome näiteid nendest riikidest, kus teatud riikide kodanikele või teatud gruppidele riigis elavatele kolmandate riikide kodanikele on hääleõigus kohalikul tasandil antud.
If you are a European citizen residing in Belgium, you can participate in municipal elections (referred to as ‘élections communales’, or local elections, in Belgium).
In order to participate in these elections as a European citizen, you must meet five conditions:
1. you must be an EU citizen;
You must be a national of one of the 27 Member States that make up the European Union on the date of the election.
2. you must be 18 years old on the day of the election;
3. you must be entered in the population register of a Belgian municipality;
This condition must be fulfilled no later than the day on which the electoral roll is closed (i.e. 1 August of the year in which the election is held).
4. you must not have been disqualified from voting;
5. you must be entered on the electoral roll.
Non-Belgian EU nationals must be entered on the electoral roll no later than the day on which the electoral roll is closed (i.e. 1 August of the year in which the election is held).
To do this, you must complete the appropriate form, which you can obtain from the local authorities in your main place of residence or print out from the federal elections website.
Elections of the municipal council
Eligibility to vote
The same requirements for casting their vote in the municipal council elections apply to Dutch nationals and EU citizens. A voter meet the following requirements:
– the voter must be 18 years of age or over;
– the voter may not be debarred from voting;
– the voter must have been a resident of a Dutch municipality on nomination day, as evidenced by the Base Registry Persons.
These requirements apply equally to all non-EU citizens who have legally resided in the Netherlands for at least five years. In other words, possessing Dutch nationality is not a requirement to be entitled to vote in the municipal council elections. The requirements for standing at the elections to the municipal council are virtually the same as the requirements for being entitled to cast a vote. The only difference is that instead of nomination day, the day of (possible) admittance to the municipal council is the reference date for meeting the requirements of residence and age.
Voting in Ireland
To be eligible to vote, you must be resident in Ireland. Whether you can vote in an election depends on your citizenship:
– Irish citizens can vote in every election and referendum;
– British citizens can vote in Dáil and local elections;
– EU citizens can vote in European and local elections;
– non-EU citizens can vote in local elections.
Local Government Act (2019)
Election of municipal councils
Members of municipal councils are elected for four years. Elections of municipal councils are appointed by the Seimas. The residents of the municipality (voters) have the right to elect members of the municipal council. A citizen of another EU country who has the right to reside in Lithuania and who has declared his place of residence in the municipality can participate and be elected in municipality elections.
Election Code of the Republic of Lithuania (XIV-1381)
Can vote in local elections, those registered in the census of the national territory, all Portuguese citizens (and Brazilian citizens with status of equal political rights) and also citizens of the following countries:
– Member States of the European Union (Germany, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Croatia, Denmark, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Czech Republic, Romania and Sweden);
– United Kingdom, with residence prior to Brexit;
– Brazil (without equality status) and Cape Verde with legal residence in Portugal for over two years;
– Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Island, Norway, New Zealand, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela with legal residence in Portugal for over three years.
Declaration no. 29/2021 of 25 March ; Resolution of the Assembly of the Republic n.º158/2019, of 4 September
Municipal and regional council elections
– you must be 18 years old no later than on election day
– you are recorded in the population register as a constituent of the municipality and region, and
– you are a Swedish citizen, a citizen of another EU Member State, Iceland or Norway, or
– you are a citizen of another country or stateless but have been recorded in the Swedish Population Register for at least three consecutive years before election day.
Entitled to vote in municipal elections are:
1) citizens of Finland or another Member State of the European Union as well as of Iceland and Norway who have reached the age of 18 not later than on the day of the election, and whose municipality of residence, as defined by law, is the municipality in question on the 51st day before election day,
2) other foreigners who have reached the age of 18 not later than on the day of the election, and whose municipality of residence, as defined by law, is the municipality in question on the 51st day before election day, and who at that time have had a municipality of residence in Finland for an uninterrupted period of two years and
3) those who are employed by the European Union or an international organisation based in Finland and who are habitually resident in the municipality in question on the 51st day before the election day, provided that their personal information has, at their request, been entered into the Population Information System and that they have submitted a written notification to the Digital and Population Data Services Agency on the 52nd day before the election day, stating that they wish to exercise their right to vote in the municipal elections.
Local Government Act (365/1995)
Union citizens may vote if they are at least 18 years old, reside in Slovakia and thus have a residence permit of a foreigner. Union citizens obtain the resident permit of a foreigner when they apply for residence on the territory of the Slovak Republic at the competent office of the Police Force. Contacts can be found directly on the website of the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic.
Foreign Union citizens are automatically put on the electoral roll for municipal elections when they register their residence, if they meet the conditions specified above.
Z Á K O N z 29. mája 2014 o podmienkach výkonu volebného práva a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov
Local and regional elections
Any person who has attained the age of 18 years and is resident in the local authority area is eligible to vote in the election to local and regional councils.
However, persons who are not nationals of Denmark, another EU Member State, Iceland or Norway may only vote if they have resided in the Kingdom for a period of four years prior to the election.
Bekendtgørelse af lov om kommunale og regionale valg /Local and Regional Government Elections Act (translation 2014)
General election of local government representatives and mayors
All adult Hungarian and EU citizens residing in Hungary have the right to vote in the general election of local government representatives and mayors, as well as in the local referendum , and adults who are recognized as refugees, immigrants or settled adults also have the right to vote.
Act L of 2010 on the Election of Municipal Representatives and Mayors
/täistekstide lugemiseks tuleb Rahvusraamatukogu otsinguportaali sisse logida/
Sontag, Katrin ; Herzog, Metka ; Lässer, Silva. Struggles for democracy: strategies and resources of initiatives for non-citizen voting rights at local levels in Europe // Comparative Migration Studies. Vol. 10 (2022), issue 1, p. 1-17.
Sieveking, Klaus. Kommunalwahlrecht für Drittstaatsangehörige – »kosmopolitische Phantasterei« oder Integrationsrecht für Einwanderer? // Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik (2008) Nr. 4, S. 121-126.